Many athletes use anabolic-androgenic steroids (aas) for physical enhancement but the magnitude of these gains and associated adverse effects has not been rigorously quantified, as they are classified by body composition. As such, our objective was to investigate whether the acute stimulatory androgenic effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids are similar in men and women and whether anabolic-androgenic steroids influence the body composition of athletes.MethodsSubjectsTwo hundred thirty-one male professional football (NFL; 22 years old) and seventeen female elite mixed martial artists (MMA; 32 years old) were recruited from the professional ranks of USA Ultimate. All subjects met the criteria for human sex reassignment surgery including a full sex reassignment surgery, a clear diagnosis of gender dysphoria and, for the NCAA study, a full-scale physical examination, anabolic-androgenic steroids scientific name. Additionally, all were subject to mandatory drug testing with a testosterone level on a continuous basis of 20 ng/dL (3, anabolic-androgenic steroids disorder.1 nmol/L), anabolic-androgenic steroids disorder. All individuals had at least ten years of competitive sports experience and met all of the eligibility and testing criteria for the study. All subjects in the NFL study had the option to provide written informed consent for participation in the study, steroids side effects. We assessed body composition via DXA scans. The study is registered with Human Subjects in Canada as TRACES 10662452 (www.hsc.ca). All subjects gave written informed consent for the study (standardized medical forms provided by the Human Subjects Committee at Baylor College of Medicine), anabolic steroids examples.Study designSubjects completed an online questionnaire to obtain demographic variables and general health information (habit of eating, smoking and drink consumption).ProcedureSubjects were assigned to one of three treatment groups, as defined by the study protocol (the NFL, MMA and controls). In the NFL study subjects completed a standard 2-week weight-loss program to achieve initial weight loss of 4, anabolic-androgenic steroids half life.7 ± 0, anabolic-androgenic steroids half life.2 kg during the 2nd week of the study (0, anabolic-androgenic steroids half life.7 kg/week) before returning to baseline weight at baseline, anabolic-androgenic steroids half life.In the MMA study subjects completed a 4 – week weight-loss program to lose 10.7 ± 5.3 kg during the first 6 weeks of the study while maintaining their baseline body weight at baseline. There has been no previously published data which provide insight into the changes in body composition with either diet or supplementation, mental steroids anabolic-androgenic effects.Control subjects received a single 8-week dietary intervention (with a total of 4 diet weeks with diet of approximately 50% energy from carbohydrate), during which participants received a maintenance diet at baseline.